First survey of Western moxibustion
Western moxibustion, at least in the modern sense by moxibustion, incoming China. Moxibustion therapy in the west, called Moxa or moxibustion, according to historical records, the word is a Dutch pangte (Dane Jacob Bontl) and RainI (William Ten Rhyne), and they will create by Moxibustion in the mid seventeenth Century through Japan introduced to europe. Rine in his 1693 book "on arthritis" in the book have a clear record of moxibustion therapy: "Ai collection head and dried leaves, in the hand rub, remove fiber impurities, leaving the fluffy material reserve....... Will be placed in need of pain moxibustion moxa cone, and the top of the kindling lit. The combustion and, finally caused a vesicle in the skin....... Doctors in China and Japan can tell from a simple picture where they should be treated. In the picture there are simple meridians and points out the position of moxibustion can brush." However, at the beginning of the Europeans in the use of the material burning moxibustion is very confusing, many materials have been used to moxibustion, such as silk, wool, cotton, cotton, paper, tinder, sunflower medulla. Especially in cotton moxibustion in France is the most popular, is wrapped in cotton cloth, cut into about 3cm in diameter ranging from 1 ~ 3cm cylinder, as by moxibustion. Some doctors dip it in potassium nitrate before use to promote its combustion. The German Ganfu (Engelbert Kampfer) in byssocausis especially played an important role in the spreading process of moxibustion, he served as a surgeon and Dutch East India Co working in Japan, had to contact him in the overseas "moxibustion, Friedrich" a book clearly advocates the use of Moxa Moxibustion, "because in Chinese and Japan used moxibustion materials is moxa", in the book he drew a picture, marked with moxibustion acupoint and moxibustion indications.
After moxibustion to the west is not attracted wide attention, moxibustion for more physicians to return to Europe from asia. In the application of moxibustion, are the best French physician laruns laruns is surgical director Napoleon, the army on the March, in the process of operation, he is the most common treatment methods of moxibustion. His treatment of paralysis, tetanus, eye disease, joint disease, spinal cord injury with moxibustion. Especially the diseases in Department of orthopedics, he believes that "we are according to a large number of observation, general methods of treatment of this disease is ferocious repeated moxibustion". Because of his excellent work, the moxibustion popularized greatly in europe.
The early western has its own characteristics in the application of moxibustion. In the selection, because most people do not know the theory of Chinese medicine, so much pain in or near the site of disease. In the method, many first moxibustion parts to shave, put a piece of cloth on the top, the middle placed a small opening as used by moxibustion. Fixed cone moxibustion moxibustion tend to adopt different ways to promote the use of it such as: burning moxa cone mouth, or with a glass tube, even with bellows. The specific approach is: hold the moxibustion cone, another person sitting on the chair, right hand pull the bellows, left hand holding tube alignment cone top blowing moxibustion. Through the back and forth movement of the blowing pipe and the control of the wind force of the blowing pipe, the combustion can be carried out as slowly as possible. This is similar to the Chinese festering moxibustion moxibustion, moxibustion, moxibustion in the formation of blisters or spot applied to paste. If you want to short-term purulent, as long as the same as the general wound dressing on a piece of gauze; if you want to long-term purulent, can be deposited with a foam ointment or in the center of the wound to put a pea to form artificial ulcer.
In addition to the moxibustion, early Western moxibustion also created a variety of moxibustion method. Commonly used are the following:
1 cotton, mild moxibustion: with a length of 12 ~ 15mm, 8 ~ 10mm in diameter of the cylindrical cotton Schwinn and moxibustion, for the head, only requires a systemic moxibustion.
2, hammer moxibustion as a tool: the wooden handle of hammer, hammer ends diameter circular surface of 2 ~ 3cm, and the diameter of the bottom surface of a moxa cone. Moxibustion, first for about an hour, two hammer metal part immersed in boiling water and then removed and immediately placed in moxibustion site, after a certain period of time to take off. Such as the obvious erythema, which has reached the purpose of treatment, such as erythema is not significant, can be placed second hammer.
3, moxibustion: a small lime fresh lime in a piece of cardboard on the center, on the need for moxibustion site, and then in the water a few drops of lime, it can be produced in accordance with the requirements of a certain depth of skin burns, achieve a similar effect of direct moxibustion.
4, gunpowder Moxibustion: a piece of wood in a layer of powder, about 3cm wide, and the length of the same limb. The affected limb moved near the powder, separated by about 18cm Xu, and then ignited the gunpowder. Wound with cabbage leaf wrapped. This method is often used in patients with paralysis.
5, cotton Moxibustion: take away gum cotton piece, immersed in the solution of basic lead acetate in soaking out after dry, cut into strips width equal to the height of moxa cone. Roll it up and sew it into a cloth bag. With Arabia gum stuck to moxibustion moxibustion.
6, moxibustion moxibustion moxibustion device which holds: developed by French laruns's more famous for a metal ring, ring with two pins, can be fixed on the cross shaped moxibustion cone ring, ring three is not easy to transfer the ebony balls as the support, the ring is not in contact with the skin; after the ring has a wooden handle, who holds for moxibustion.
China's introduction of Western popular moxibustion, once in eighteenth Century, but from mid nineteenth Century onwards gradually decline. Analysis of the reasons, partly because of the rapid development of modern western medicine; on the other hand may also spread to the Western moxibustion therapy itself is not perfect, such as: the point selection and prescription, do not understand completely according to syndrome differentiation, disease pain moxibustion moxibustion materials; in eight, Wuhua door. In arbitrary; moxibustion methods, emphasis on serious injuries, pain skin with moxibustion.
In two, the Japanese moxibustion
In the dazzling foreign exchange Chinese medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion has been acting as a vanguard role. In the year 514, acupuncture first spread to North Korea; in the year 550, China Moxibustion from North Korea into Japan, then it is in Japan on the land to take root, growth, flowering, results.
Both Japan and China belong to the oriental culture, but from the perspective of regional culture, they tend to be more like Yu Han (Confucianism, Taoism). So moxibustion in Japan basically inherited the theory and method of Chinese traditional medicine, but also has great development, especially in modern times. Mainly in the following aspects:
1 from the extension to the prevention and health care moxibustion moxibustion: in our country, although in the "emergency prescriptions", "Bian Que book", "acupuncture and Moxibustion", "acupuncture" were mentioned moxibustion prevention and health care of the law, but has not received due attention. In ancient Japanese folk application of moxibustion therapy of prevention and health care, longevity has been as an important matter in a year to exercise in the general population, common health moxibustion, and popular "not with moxibustion at Zusanli point people travel", "door cave everyone Moxibustion" proverbs. In Japan, both men and women, life must be 4 times: Seventeen, moxibustion moxibustion at the age of eight door is said to prevent colds, flu is a disease that ancient Japanese million for the first time; twenty-four, five years old, moxibustion Sanyinjiao, intended to enhance the reproductive capacity; three, forty years old, while moxibustion at Zusanli point, that can promote the function of the spleen and stomach to prevent disease and increase life; to the elderly, in order to prevent the deterioration of eyesight, usually taken with moxibustion moxibustion Zusanli and Quchi, Quchi to make eyes bright, strong teeth. This custom has continued to the eve of the Meiji restoration. In fact, the use of moxibustion treatment of disease prevention and health care, in modern times still get attention, such as Japan from 1937 New Year's day, set off the so-called national Three Mile moxibustion health campaign. Especially in recent years, moxibustion therapy in this value is more and more in China including the doctors and patients pay attention to.
Experimental study on the 2 importance of Moxibustion: this work in Japan not only started early, and made a series of achievements. About in the Meiji 45 years (1912) before and after the Japanese doctors began the modern research of moxibustion, laboratory animal science will introduce the domain of acupuncture and moxibustion. Mainly from the early moxa cone size and weight, AI burning degree, the depth of a variety of moxa cone moxibustion skin effect, explore the physical characteristics of moxibustion for raw materials; at the same time, also observed the moxibustion on blood, blood vessels, blood pressure, intestinal peristalsis and fatigue curve effect. After the moxibustion research field is expanding, not only to systematically study the effect of moxibustion on blood, vasculature, digestive, respiratory and urinary system, the movement principle, but also from different angles to explore as from Haiteshi with relations and to explore the therapeutic mechanism of acupuncture moxibustion; moxibustion on skin tissue after the change, comprehensive observation from physiology, pathology, biochemistry etc..The past ten years, Japan has made new progress in the experimental research of moxibustion. Our attention and clinical research, it focuses on moxibustion, especially based on direct moxibustion, angle of study work and novel research results have important reference value. As the research materials of moxibustion AI, the AI placed on a glass plate burning, visible Brown tar like substance attached, called "Ai combustion products", and conducts the thorough research, think of moxa combustion products by moxibustion heat damage skin infiltration into the office so as to play a role. As for the influence of local moxibustion research shows that moxibustion stimulation can induce local muscles to produce a substance, and this material can be produced by moxibustion parts as immunogen and activate the immune system, which play a role in disease prevention.
In addition to the above, the Japanese doctors have also done a lot of work in improving very fruitful, materials of moxibustion moxibustion methods innovation etc..
In summary, originated in ancient times, formed in the Qin and Han Dynasties, the development of moxibustion therapy in the Jin Tang and Song Dynasty, mature in Ming Dynasty and the decline of the Qing Dynasty, in the year sixth Century in Japan, seventeenth Century in West Europe, the twists and turns, obtained great progress in the modern, and has broad prospects. But from a lot of research work in the future, there are many issues worthy of further study, such as the effect of moxa in different moxibustion, simple heat stimulation can replace moxibustion; moxibustion moxibustion in the lining process, in addition to prevent fire moxibustion burns, whether there are different levels and different nature of the disease prevention and control the effect of different stimulation modes; (high temperature, low temperature, chemical) how to influence the curative effect of moxibustion; the dosage and effect of scientific, objective, quantitative moxibustion parameters and so on, to acupuncture colleagues continue to work hard.
Overview of foreign moxibustion
First survey of Western moxibustion