What are the diagnostic methods for diabetic nephropathy?

How is diabetic nephrosis diagnosed? Generally due to persistent urinary protein in clinical diabetic nephropathy (urinary protein more than 0.5g/24 hours), and the exclusion of other possible causes of urinary protein increased (see early diabetic nephropathy), renal function declined, may be associated with hypertension, edema and typical diabetic retinopathy. What are the diagnostic methods for diabetic nephropathy?

Physical examination found: varying degrees of hypertension, edema, severe ascites, pleural effusion and so on. Diabetic retinopathy.

Supplementary Examination:

Qualitative urine is a simple method of screening for diabetes in diabetic nephropathy, but there may be false negative and positive, so the determination of blood glucose is the main basis for the diagnosis.

The urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) of 20 ~ 200 g/min, is an important index for the diagnosis of early diabetic nephropathy; when UAE is more than 200 g/min or routine examination of urine protein positive (urine protein greater than 0.5g/24h), which is for the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. Urinary sediment generally does not change significantly, more white cells suggest urinary tract infection; there are a large number of red blood cells, suggesting that there may be other causes of hematuria

In the late stage of diabetic nephropathy, endogenous creatinine clearance decreased and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine increased.

The renal dynamic glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased and the renal volume increased by B-mode ultrasonography, which was consistent with early diabetic nephropathy. In uremia, GFR decreased significantly, but the volume of the kidneys tended to decrease markedly.

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